The Service Industries

This GCSE Geography quiz takes a look at the service industries. There are four industry sectors, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. The primary sector is concerned with the supply of raw materials e.g. mining and agriculture and the secondary sector is concerned with the manufacture of goods. The tertiary sector is referred to as the services sector which involves the sale of services and skills plus the selling of goods and materials from the primary and secondary sectors. The quaternary sector is also a services sector, but dealing with information services, consultancy and R&D (research and development).

Britain was the first nation to industrialise, back in the 17th and 18th centuries. This developed a strong economy that was based on manufacturing. In the 19th century, other countries started to industrialise but it wasn't really until after the second world war, when cheaper transport and labour costs led to globalisation.

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During the 1960s and 1970s, manufacturing in the UK declined rapidly as a series of major industrial disputes and cheap coal imports made UK produced goods more and more expensive.

During this period of globalisation, the labour structure of the UK changed. As the primary sector employment declined, there was an increase in the demand for jobs in schools, hospitals and the retail industries. This led to further rural depopulation and the loss of many rural services - for example, local butchers, grocery shops and post offices closed. By the end of the 20th century, over half the population now worked in the tertiary sector and the financial services industry is currently the fastest growing area.

These changes have continued into the 21st century and the use of computers and computer systems, plus the need for increased research and development of products and business consultants, has given rise to the quaternary sector, which is regarded as part of the services industry. At the time of writing this quiz, about seventy eight percent of the UK labour force works in service sector industries.

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  1. The biggest expansion in the tertiary sector of the UK since the 1990s has been:
    The number of people working in this sector has doubled
  2. Which of the following is not a service industry?
    Farming is a primary sector industry
  3. R&D stands for:
    Some R&D is carried out by universities but there are also commercial companies who sell this as a service
  4. Many businesses in the financial services industry have grouped themselves together with their headquarters in the City of London. This is referred to as:
    Examples of financial services industries are banks and insurance companies
  5. Tertiary and quaternary sector businesses can be found:
    Businesses in the services sector can be established almost anywhere
  6. In the UK, approximately what proportion of the working population is involved in service industries?
    Manufacturing in the UK has steadily declined since the second world war
  7. Which of the following words is associated with the increase in service industries in the UK?
    Cheaper and faster transport plus cheaper workforces in LEDCs has forced UK industries to focus more on services. It is often cheaper to manufacture abroad than in Britain
  8. A characteristic of an MEDC is:
    In an MEDC such as the UK or the USA, the primary and secondary sectors of the economy account for only about a quarter of the labour force. In an LEDC such as Nepal or many of the African nations, the opposite is true
  9. Tertiary and quaternary industries are often referred to as being footloose. What does that mean?
    They require very few raw materials and any they do need are not bulky and can easily be transported to wherever a footloose business has been established
  10. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
    Construction and retail are secondary sector industries

Author: Kev Woodward

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