Middle East: 1948-1999 - Attempts Since 1973 To Broker A Peace Settlement

One of the subjects looked at in GCSE History is the Middle East during the period from 1948-1999. The attempts that have been made to bring about a peace settlement between the Israelis and the Arabs is one of the topics that comes under scrutiny.

After the 1973 war repeated attempts were made to bring about a peace settlement in the Middle East, normally brokered by the United States. Considerable progress has been made but the fundamental issue of a Palestinian state has yet to be resolved. The issue of Israeli settlement of land taken in the six-day war, and the status of East Jerusalem, are also issues of concern.

Discover more about the attempts which have been made to bring peace to the Middle East in this quiz.

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  1. In 1977 President Sadat of Egypt flew to Jerusalem and addressed the Israeli Knesset. What was this body?
    Sadat took a big risk in going to Israel, and indeed a short while after his return he was assassinated by members of his own bodyguard
  2. In 1978 Sadat and Menachem Begin, the Israeli leader, met the US President Jimmy Carter. Where did this meeting take place?
    These talks led to the signing in 1979 of a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel
  3. In 1993 talks took place in Oslo, that included representatives of the Palestinian people. Which organisation was recognised by the United Nations as the sole legitimate voice of Palestinians?
    Negotiations with the Palestinians were difficult. Issues like Gaza, the West Bank, Israeli settlements and East Jerusalem were complicated and aroused strong passions
  4. Which Arab state reached agreement with the State of Israel in 1994?
    This was progress, but very slow if countries were going to recognise Israel one by one, and only after the passage of more time
  5. In 2003 a phrase was used by the leaders of the US, the Palestinians and the government of Israel to suggest a peace plan with regular gradual targets towards an eventual "two-state solution". What was this phrase?
    This document suggested a long and gradual "peace process"
  6. From 2002 a "Quartet" of four main states, or groups of states, agreed to use their collective influence to achieve Middle East peace. Which of the following did not belong to the Quartet?
    After 10 years the Quartet had little to show for their efforts
  7. The Quartet did, however, have a Special Envoy, tasked with exploiting opportunities for Middle East peace. Who has occupied this post since 2007?
    Despite apparent intense activity the current envoy's achievements in the role seem rather meagre
  8. Both the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock are sacred sites for muslims. On which part of Israeli-occupied East Jerusalem are they to be found?
    This is an especially sensitive area. Ariel Sharon's visit there a few years ago provoked serious protests
  9. Equally the so-called "Wailing Wall" in East Jerusalem is cherished by Jews, especially Ultra-Orthodox ones. What other name is given to this wall?
    In 1967, after the wall was captured by Israeli forces, many Orthodox Jews gathered there to pray
  10. One stumbling block in the way of an agreement between Israel and the Palestinians is the question of "settlements", parcels of land seized by Jewish farmers. Where are these settlements mainly to be found?
    For settlers this land is part of "Eretz Israel" extending beyond the borders established in 1948-9 to which they have a right according to the Old Testament. For the Palestinians this is their land and they look to the Israeli authorities to eject the settlers

Author: Edward Towne

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