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World War One Aftermath: 1919 - Paris Peace Conference - Aims Of The "Big Three"

World War One and its aftermath is amongst the topics studied in GCSE History and one aspect looked at is the peace settlements and treaties signed after the war's end. This is the first of four quizzes on that subject and it looks specifically at the Paris Peace Conference and the aims of the three main powers - Britain, France and the USA.

After the end of the fighting in World War One, came the terms for peace. Britain, the United States and France all had different aims as they assembled near Paris for the peace conference of January 1919, following the Armistice signed by Germany in November the previous year. US President Wilson favoured a conciliatory deal, but France was out for revenge. Britain's stance was somewhere between the two.

See how much you know about the Paris Peace Conference, which sought to bring World War One officially to an end, in this quiz.

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  1. Wilson proposed an international organisation to enforce the terms of the eventual treaty. Indeed, adherence to this body was a condition of signing the treaty at all. What name was given to this entity?
    Wilson assumed that every signatory to the Treaty of Versailles would join his international body. Without so joining, they would not be able to sign the eventual treaty, and thus they would remain technically at war
  2. Britain and - especially - France insisted that Germany should pay for all the loss and damage that they had incurred in the war. What name was given to payments (either in cash or in kind) to compensate the Allies for such losses?
    Wilson opposed such payments, but the French were insistent. Lloyd George helpfully suggested a commission to consider the matter, and to report their findings by May 1921
  3. Woodrow Wilson's proposals as guidelines for a fair and successful peace were set out early in 1918 in a list of points. What name was given to these?
    In January 1918 Wilson first presented his proposals for a lasting peace. At that time the German high command were reluctant to do a deal, but by October 1918 - when they felt that they were likely to lose the war - they were prepared to accept an armistice and to negotiate a final peace
  4. Britain in particular was determined to destroy Germany's naval potential. What name was given to the German fleet which was based at ports on the North Sea coast, and which also could take advantage of the Kiel Canal to use ports like Kiel on Germany's Baltic coast?
    Both the German fleet and the British fleet had fought each other at the Battle of Jutland in May/June 1916 in an indecisive naval engagement. Lloyd George was determined to end the threat of German naval predominance by insisting on harsh terms at the Treaty of Versailles in respect of Germany's naval potential
  5. As an over-arching principle Wilson suggested that local populations should decide in which state they should reside - in other words without having to move. What name did he give to this principle?
    Wilson believed that settled populations of Europeans could choose their own state of residence without having to move, or without forcing others to do so
  6. At Versailles Germany was stated to be unfit to hold colonies. These were to be held under international control by the victorious powers. What name was given to their new status, ruled - perhaps only temporarily - by Britain, France or Belgium?
    Wilson insisted that - while these ex-colonies could not be expected to be self-governing - they must be ruled responsibly by powers who also already held colonies of their own
  7. Britain was represented at Versailles by the Prime Minister, David Lloyd George. During the general election campaign of late 1918 he promised severe terms on Germany at the impending peace talks at Versailles. What name is often given to this election?
    The public mood in Britain was hostile to Germany after more than four years of bitter war. Women over 30 were granted the vote for the first time, and many serving military personnel took part
  8. One of France's minimum demands at the Versailles talks was the recovery of two French provinces seized by Germany after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1. What were these provinces called?
    The recovery of lost lands was a fundamental French war aim
  9. During the negotiations both Britain and France (also acting for Belgium) sought a special promise from the United States that she would come to their assistance in the event of a future German attack. What name was given to this treaty that was, in the event, never signed?
    France (and its close ally Belgium) were dissatisfied with the protection afforded by the Treaty of Versailles itself. They - together with Great Britain - sought extra protection from a special extra treaty, whereby the USA would automatically intervene to thwart any attempt by Germany to reverse the terms of Versailles in the West
  10. At the Versailles peace talks France was represented by a pugnacious leader whose nickname was "The Tiger" ("Le Tigre") on account of his very hostile attitude to Germany. What was his name?
    Any French leader in 1919 would have adopted a belligerent stance towards Germany. France's physical losses were immense. Huge numbers of men were either dead or wounded, and large swathes of French territory had been devastated. The French sought revenge, and an assurance that nothing similar would ever happen again

Author: Edward Towne

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