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World War One Aftermath: The Peace Settlement -  Reactions Of Britain, USA, France, Italy And Germany

In GCSE History World War One and its aftermath is one of the topics looked at. One aspect of it studied is the peace settlements and treaties signed after the war's end. This is the second of four quizzes on that subject and it looks specifically at the reactions of the major powers to the peace settlement.

The peace treaty that was signed at Versailles in June 1919, bringing World War One to its close, was inevitably a compromise. None of the major signatory powers was very pleased with the settlement, and reactions in Germany were especially bitter, as she had not been allowed to take any part in the negotiations.

Discover more about the reactions of the major powers to the peace settlement, in this quiz.

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  1. Which Italian poet and man of action embarrassed the Italian government by seizing for Italy the port of Fiume in defiance of international opinion?
    The elected Italian government could do little to prevent this defiance of the terms of the 1919-20 settlements, although many Italians felt strongly that they had been cheated of the spoils of war, and betrayed by their allies
  2. The United States Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, and thus the US did not join the League of Nations. What was the main reason for American suspicion of the League?
    President Woodrow Wilson ruined his health by undertaking a nationwide speaking campaign to persuade Americans to embrace League membership. His political opponents in the Republican Party rapidly gathered support for hostility to the treaty and the League
  3. Lloyd George, as prime minister, made various promises in the general election campaign of December 1918 about the treatment that the German Kaiser could expect, if the coalition government was to be returned to power. What specific fate would Wilhelm II suffer?
    The Kaiser was widely regarded as a war criminal, guilty of having started the war and answerable for atrocities committed by German forces over more than four years of fighting. The fact that he was related to the British Royal Family counted for very little
  4. What name is usually given to the American policy of avoiding foreign commitments after the experience of the Great War?
    This policy was even supported by Charles Lindbergh, the US pilot famous for his solo flight across the Atlantic in the 1920s
  5. Which leading French politician (and future prime minister), who had not led his country's delegation at Versailles, insisted on a sharp reaction to any attempt by Germany to evade the treaty's terms?
    Distrust of Germany lingered long in French minds after the war. After the failure of Britain and the United States to persuade their parliaments to safeguard the terms of Versailles by armed force, the French were determined to take action on their own or assisted by their Belgian allies
  6. Which port just east of the Pula peninsula was denied to Italy in 1919, and given to Yugoslavia instead?
    This was a town with a substantial Italian population, which Italy claimed to have been promised in the Treaty of London of May 1915
  7. The French government was anxious to ensure that no German attack on France could ever occur again. German disarmament was seen as insufficient, as were extensive territorial losses and the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland. Once it was clear that her allies would not allow her to annex the Rhine area, the French insisted on protection from Britain and the USA in the event of fresh German aggression. What kind of treaty were they therefore seeking?
    The French government wanted to be sure that the wartime alliance would extend beyond the war: indeed for all time
  8. German opinion objected above all to a particular clause in the treaty that assigned all blame for starting the war to Germany. Thus, Germany was held responsible for all loss and damage that occurred in the war. What was this clause called?
    Some Germans were prepared to accept a measure of blame for the outbreak of war, but they expected other states to agree to some blame themselves. This clause was seen as "victor's justice"
  9. Which member of the British Treasury delegation to Versailles resigned in protest at the harshness of the terms - particularly with regard to reparations? He returned to Britain and wrote "The Economic Consequences of the Peace".
    Many British officials felt that the treaty was so harsh as to be unworkable. Britain had suffered less than Belgium and France, and - once naval and colonial questions had been resolved - was keen to resume trading relations with Germany
  10. What word did Germans use to describe the Treaty of Versailles, which indicated their view that it had been forced on them without any consultation?
    Very few Germans were prepared to accept the terms of Versailles, which they felt had been imposed on them. Those who did eventually sign were threatened with assassination

Author: Edward Towne

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